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  322270.COM_高中英语语法黑龙江快3讨论群_彩经_彩发财习技巧:名词从句

  概述

  一.定义: 在句中的作用相当于一个名词的从句叫做名词性从句

  二.分类: 名词性从句包括四类, 分别是: 主语从句, 宾语从句, 表语从句, 同位语从句

  三.引导词: 名词从句的引导词包括连词that / if / whether, 连接代词who / whom / whose / what / which, 连接副词when / where / how / why, 另外还有: whatever, whichever, whoever等

  主语从句

  一.定义: 在句中充当主语的从句就是主语从句

  二.示例:

  a. That he looked at me in that strange way puzzled me.

  b. Whether we can control the floods is still uncertain.

  c. What he wanted to see was an end to all the armies of the world.

  d. When the broadcast station will be ready is unknown.

  e. Who made the long distance call to him is not important.

  f. Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.

  三.应注意的问题:

  1.以that引导主语从句时, 常用it作形式主语, 而把真正主语后移, 如在以下句型中就是如此: It is + adj / n + that...; It is said / reported / hoped that...

  a. It is certain that fuels like coal and oil cause a lot of pollution.

  b. It was said that only three people in the world could understand it at that time.

  2.whether引导主语从句时, 常置于句首 (此时whether不能用if代替), 也有后移的用法 (此时whether可以用if代替)

  a. Whether they will come is not yet known.

  b. It is not yet known whether they will go there.

  3.连接代词who, what, which和连接副词when, where, how, why引导主语从句时, 一般不后移

  a. What I told you last night was really true.

  b. Which team will win the game is not yet known.

  c. How they went to the USA is still a puzzle.

  宾语从句

  一.定义: 在句中充当宾语的从句就是宾语从句. 谓语动词, 非谓语动词, 介词都可以带有宾语从句

  二.示例:

  1.谓语动词的宾语从句:

  a. They knew that the habit may kill them.

  b. She asked whether / if there were any chemist’s shops in this street.

  c. The teacher told them who first invented the television set.

  d. I want to know whose notebook is left on the table in the reading room.

  e. Can you tell me where the Great Pyramid is ?

  2.非谓语动词的宾语从句:

  a. Having known what he had done in school, his father was very angry.

  3.介词的宾语从句:

  a. They talked half an hour about what happened in the school.

  b. He is pleased with what we did yesterday.

  c. Leifeng always thought of how he can do more for the people.

  三.应注意的问题:

  1.句中有宾语从句且有宾补时, 通常用it作形式宾语, 而把宾语从句移到宾补后

  a. We think it wrong that he didn’t help Tom.

  b. I feel it possible that you will finish the work in a day.

  2.that从句一般不作介词的宾语, 但except等少数表示 “除外”的介词除外

  a. I know nothing about him except that he lives next door.

  3.关于主句和宾语从句的时态呼应:

  ①.如果主句是过去时, 宾语从句应是 “过去”范畴的某时态

  a. He said he would fly to Egypt next day.

  b. He remembered that he had left her umbrella in the library.

  ②.如果宾语从句表示的是客观真理或普遍现象, 可以保持 “现在”范畴时态, 而不与主句时态呼应

  a. The teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.

  ③.如果主句是一般现在时或一般将来时, 宾语从句根据情况选用所需要的时态

  4.关于宾语从句的 “否定转移”: 主句的谓语动词为这些词( think, believe, expect, imagine, suppose, guess等)时, 宾语从句的否定转移到主句中去

  a. I don’t think he will come.

  b. I don’t think there are living things on the moon.

  表语从句

  一.定义: 在句中充当表语的从句就是表语从句

  二.示例:

  a. My idea is that we should help mother do house work every day.

  b. The question is whether we can catch the early bus.

  c. Nicotine! That’s what the smokers need.

  d. Ten years of hard work! That’s why I now look so old.

  同位语从句

  一.定义: 在一个名词或代词(如: news, fact, idea, hope, promise, problem, possibility等)后面, 对其作进一步的解释、说明的从句称为同位语从句

  二.示例:

  a. I don’t know the fact that the fireman was killed in the fire.

  b. I have no idea when Jack will be back.

  c. He can’t answer the question how he got the money.

  d. There is no doubt that she is fit for the job.

  e. The news that our team has won the game is very exciting.

  f. I didn’t tell mother the fact that I met with an accident on my way home.

  常见问题

  一.that引导名词从句与定语从句的区别:

  1.引导名词从句的that本身无词义, 只起引导作用, 在从句中并不充当任何句子成分; 而引导定语从句的that是关系代词, 有词义(指代先行词), 除了起引导作用之外, 还在从句中充当句子成分

  2.引导宾语从句的that可省略, 引导其他名词从句的that一般不能省略; 而引导定语从句的that如果在定语从句中充当宾语, 也可以省略

  a. I know that smoking does harm to people’s health. (宾语从句)

  b. The text tells me a fact that I have already known. (定语从句)

  c. The news that he had passed the examination made her parents very happy.(同位语从句)

  d. The news that he told me yesterday made me surprised.(定语从句)

  二.which引导名词从句与定语从句的区别:

  which引导名词从句时, 其含义是 “哪一个, 哪一些”; which引导定语从句时, 指代先行词, 其含义就是先行词的意思

  a. There are so many beautiful caps in the shop. I really don’t know which one I should choose.(宾语从句)

  b. I will never forget the days which we spent in the countryside. (定语从句)

  三.that / what引导名词从句的区别:

  引导名词从句时, that本身无词义, 只起引导作用, 在从句中也不充当任何句子成分; what有词义, what引导的名词从句的含义是 “…的事 / 物 (任何抽象的或具体的物) ”, what在从句中也充当一个成分

  a. They knew that the habit may kill them.

  b. What he wanted to see (“他想看到的事”)was an end to all the armies of the world.

  c. Nicotine! That’s what the smokers need.(“抽烟者所需要的东西”)

  四.引导名词从句时只用whether, 不用if的情况:

  1.引导主语从句时:

  a. Whether the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet.

  2.引导表语从句时:

  a. The problem is whether we need it.

  3.引导介词后的宾语从句时:

  a. He was worried about whether he passed the exam.

  4.与or not连用时:

  a. It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not.

  5.置于不定式之前时:

  a. I don’t know whether to go.

  6.引导同位语从句时:

  a. The problem whether we’ll build another school hasn’t been settled.

  五.名词从句的语序问题: 名词从句中都要使用陈述语序, 参看前文例句

  2.引导表语从句时:

  a. The problem is whether we need it.

  3.引导介词后的宾语从句时:

  a. He was worried about whether he passed the exam.

  4.与or not连用时:

  a. It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not.

  5.置于不定式之前时:

  a. I don’t know whether to go.

  6.引导同位语从句时:

  a. The problem whether we’ll build another school hasn’t been settled

  322270.COM_高中英语语法黑龙江快3讨论群_彩经_彩发财习技巧:表语从句

  1、关联词不能省略

  2、从句用陈述语序

  常见引导词

  what, when, where, why, whether, how, that, because, which,

  What surprised me most was that he spoke English so well.

  The question is how what you’ve said can be put into practice.

  The reason (why ) he didn’t come is that he was ill.

  It (This , That) is because iron contains more carbon than steel.

  322270.COM_高中英语语法黑龙江快3讨论群_彩经_彩发财习技巧:同位语从句

  1、关联词不能省略

  2、从句用陈述语序

  从句的名词后接同位语

  fact, idea, word,promise, saying,problem, news

  常见引导词

  that, whether, where, how, etc.

  The facts that he succeeded in the experiment pleased us.

  An idea came to her that she might do that in another way.

  Scientists have argued over the problem whether there is life on other planets.

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